L’abbandono precoce dell’istruzione e della formazione in Europa: cause, interventi e risultati

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Davide Capperucci

Abstract

L’abbandono precoce dei percorsi di istruzione e formazione costituisce per l’Europa un problema sociale e educativo di grande rilevanza. La portata che esso è andato assumendo nel corso degli ultimi decenni lo rende un’emergenza comune a molti paesi europei, che chiama in causa non solo il mondo della scuola e della formazione ma anche altri settori legati all’economia, alla cultura, ai servizi sociali, a forme più o meno gravi di disagio giovanile. Il fenomeno dell’abbandono infatti è legato alla disoccupazione, all’emarginazione sociale, alla povertà, all’immigrazione, a problemi personali e familiari, a difficoltà di apprendimento, alla scarsa capacità delle scuole di intercettare i bisogni degli studenti e motivarli allo studio. Questo insieme di concause può indurre i giovani a lasciare la scuola o la formazione ancor prima di aver conseguito una qualifica o un diploma. Data la complessità delle problematiche non è facile trovare misure trasferibili da una realtà all’altra, per questo oltre a ricercare le cause più frequenti, è importante considerare ogni situazione a rischio di abbandono come un caso a sé, che richiede strumenti di analisi e di intervento specifici.

Partendo dall’analisi dei dati statistici messi a disposizione dalla Commissione europea, Parlamento e Consiglio europeo, Eurostat, OCSE, Cedefop e Eurydice, nel presente contributo vengono indagate le cause, le strategie d’intervento e i risultati conseguiti dalle politiche europee e nazionali nella lotta all’ELET (Early Leaving in Education and Training). Un’attenzione specifica è dedicata alle azioni che le istituzioni scolastiche e formative posso mettere in campo per fronteggiare le criticità collegate all’abbandono.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Sezione
Contributi teorici
##submission.authorBiography##

##submission.authorWithAffiliation##

Ricercatore confermato di Pedagogia sperimentale, docente di Teorie e metodi di progettazione e valutazione scolastica e Pedagogia sperimentale nel CdL in Scienze della Formazione Primaria

Riferimenti bibliografici

Agnoli, M. S. (2015). Generazioni sospese. Percorsi di ricerca sui giovani Neet. FrancoAngeli, Milano.
Antonmattei, P., & Fouquet, A. (2011). La lutte contre l’absentéisme et le décrochage scolaire. Mission permanente d’évaluation de la politique de prévention de la délinquance. http://www.education.gouv.fr/archives/2012/refondonslecole/wpcontent/uploads/2012/07/mission_prevention_de_la_delinquance_la_lutte_contre_l_absenteisme_et_le_decrochage_scolaires_octobre_20111.pdf
Batini, F. (2011). Orientare per non disperdere: le storie siamo noi. Una ricerca sperimentale sull’orientamento narrativo delle scuole secondarie di Livorno, Pensa Multimedia, Lecce.
Batini, F. (2014). Drop-out, Fuorionda, Arezzo.
Batini, F. (2016), L’orientamento narrativo, i Neet e i Dropout. Universitas, gennaio 2016.
Batini, F., & Bartolucci, M. (2016). Dispersione scolastica. Ascoltare i protagonisti per comprenderla e prevenirla, FrancoAngeli, Milano.
Batini, F. & Giusti S. (a cura di) (2015). Non lavoro, non studio, non guardo la Tv, Pensa Multimedia, Lecce.
Barzanò, G. (2002). School self-evaluation: Towards a European dimension. European Journal of Teacher Education, 25(1), 83-100.
Belfield, C. (2008). The Cost of Early School-leaving and School Failure. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTLACREGTOPPOVANA/Resources/BELFIELDCostofSchoolFailure.pdf
Blok, H., Sleegers, P., & Karsten, S. (2008). Looking for a balance between internal and external evaluation of school quality: Evaluation of the SVI model. Journal of Education Policy, 23(4), 379-395.
Capperucci, D. (2008). Dalla programmazione educativa e didattica alla progettazione curricolare. Modelli teorici e proposte operative per la scuola delle competenze. FrancoAngeli, Milano.
Capperucci, D. (2013). La scuola in Europa. Politiche e interventi dell’Unione europea in materia di istruzione e formazione. FrancoAngeli, Milano.
Catarci, M., & Fiorucci, M. (2015). Intercultural Education in the European Context. Theories, Experiences, Challenges, Ashgate, Farnham.
Cedefop (2010). Guiding at-risk youth through learning to work Lessons from across Europe. Research Paper 3. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Files/5503_en.pdf
Cedefop (2012). Curriculum reform in Europe: The impact of learning outcomes. Research Paper 29. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/EN/Files/5529_en.pdf
Cedefop ReferNet (2014). Early leaving from vocational education and training. ReferNet partners.
Clark, D. (2011). Do Recessions Keep Students in School? The impact of Youth Unemployment on Enrolment in Post-compulsory Education in England. Economica. 78, 523-545.
Coles, B. et al. (2010). Estimating the life-time cost of NEET: 16-18 year olds not in Education, Employment or Training.
http://www.york.ac.uk/media/spsw/documents/researchandpublications/NEET_Final_Report_July_2010_York.pdf
Colombo, M. (2010). Dispersione scolastica e politiche per il successo formativo: dalla ricerca sugli early school leaver alle proposte di innovazione. Erickson, Trento.
Colombo, M. (2014). I giovani migranti nelle scuole italiane: percorsi formativi, disuguaglianze, risorse. Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana, 22(42).
Dale, R. (2009). Early School Leaving: Lessons from Research for Policy Makers. Report written on behalf of NESSE (Network of experts in social science of education and training).
http://www.nesse.fr/nesse/activities/reports/activities/reports/early-school-leaving-report
Dag Tjaden, J. (2013). Migrants and vocational education in the European Union: a review of evidence on access and dropout. http://www.siriusmigrationeducation.org/wpcontent/uploads/2013/11/Discussion-paper_VET_2dec.pdf
De Groof, S., & Elchardus M. (eds.) (2013). Early school-leaving and youth unemployment. Leuven, Lannoo Campus Press, pp. 132-156.
De Witte K. et al. (2013). The Impact of Institutional Context, Education and Labour Market Policies on Early School Leaving: A Comparative Analysis of EU Countries. European Journal of Education, 48(3), 331-345.
Dell’Agnese, E., & Vitale, T. (2007). Rom e sinti, una galassia di minoranze senza territorio. Identità ed integrazione. Passato e presente delle minoranze nell'Europa mediterranea, 123-145.
Domenici, G. (2007). La valutazione come volano della crescita formativa. Annali della Pubblica Istruzione, 4, 57-69.
EACEA/Eurydice (2010). Gender Differences in Educational Outcomes: Study on the Measures Taken and the Current Situation in Europe. EACEA/Eurydice, Brussels.
EACEA/Eurydice (2011). Grade Retention during Compulsory Education in Europe: Regulations and Statistics. EACEA/Eurydice, Brussels.
EACEA/Eurydice (2012). Key Data on Education in Europe 2012. EACEA/Eurydice, Brussels.
EACEA/Eurydice (2013). The structure of the European education systems 2013/14: Schematic diagrams.
http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/facts_and_figures/education_structures_EN.pdf
EACEA/Eurydice, & Cedefop. (2014). Tackling early leaving from education and training in Europe: strategies, policies and measures. Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency, Brussels.
http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/175en.pdf
Eurofound (European Foundation for the Improvement of the Living and Working Conditions) (2012). NEETs – Young people not in employment, education and training: Characteristics, costs and policy responses in Europe.
http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/2012/54/en/1/EF1254EN.pdf
European Commission (2010). Reducing early school leaving. Commission Staff Working Paper accompanying document to the Proposal for a Council Recommendation on policies to reduce early school leaving. European Commission, Brussels.
European Commission (2011a). Reducing early school leaving.
http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=SEC:2011:0096:FIN:EN:PDF
European Commission (2011b). Tackling early school leaving: A key contribution to the Europe 2020 Agenda.
http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2011:0018:FIN:EN:PDF
European Commission (2013a). Reducing early school leaving: Key messages and policy support. Final Report of the Thematic Working Group on Early School Leaving. European Commission, Brussels.
http://ec.europa.eu/education/policy/strategicframework/doc/ELETgroupreport_en.pdf
European Commission (2013b). Study on Educational Support to newly arrived migrant children.
http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/study-on-educational-support-for-newly-arrivedmigrant-children-pbNC3112385/
European Commission (2015), Education and Training Monitor 2015.
http://ec.europa.eu/education/tools/et-monitor_it.htm
European Parliament and The Council of the European Union (2006). Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning.
http://eurlex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32006H0962&from=EN
Eurostat, EU-LFS, agosto 2014.
Field, S., Kuczera, M., & Pont, B. (2007). No More Failures: Ten Steps to Equity in Education. OECD, Paris.
Frabboni, F., & Baldacci, M. (Eds.). (2004). Didattica e successo formativo: strategie per la prevenzione della dispersione scolastica (Vol. 12). FrancoAngeli, Milano.
Grange Sergi, T. (a cura di) (2013). Qualità dell’educazione e nuove specializzazioni negli asili nido. ETS, Pisa.
Grasso, M. (2015). Il successo scolastico dei giovani figli dell’immigrazione: il ruolo della famiglia come capitale sociale. Rivista Italiana di Educazione Familiare, 10(1), 201-216.
Hanushek, E. A., & Wößmann, L. (2006). Does Educational Tracking Affect Performance and Inequality? Differences-in-Differences Evidence across Countries. Economic Journal, 116(510), 63-76.
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible Learning. A Synthesis of over 800 Meta-analyses relating to achievement. Routledge, London.
Houssemand, C., & Meyers, R. (2013). The Role of Parenting in Dropping Out of School: Contributions and Limits of Qualitative Research Methods. Procedia Social and Behavioural Sciences, 89, 523-528.
http://orbilu.uni.lu/bitstream/10993/11847/1/Houssemand-Procedia-2013.pdf
Hugh, D. (2010). The ‘collateral impact’ of pupil behaviour and geographically concentrated socioeconomic disadvantage. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 31, 261-276.
Jacob, B., & Lefgren, L. (2009). The Effect of Grade Retention on High School Completion. American Economic Journal of Applied Economics, American Economic Association, 1(3), 33-58.
Jimerson, S. R. (2001). Meta-analysis of grade retention research: Implications for practice in the 21st century. School Psychology Review, 30, 420-437.
Jimerson, S. R., Anderson G. E., & Whipple, A. D. (2002). Winning the battle and losing the war: Examining the relation between grade retention and dropping out of school. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 441-457.
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2008). Cooperative learning. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Jugović, I., & Doolan, K. (2013). Is There Anything Specific about Early leaving from education and training in Southeast Europe? A Review of Research and Policy. European Journal of Education, 48 (3), 363-377.
Lamb, S. (2008). Alternative Pathways to High School Graduation: An International comparison. California Dropout Research Project Report 7.
https://omhsbsavage.wikispaces.hcpss.org/file/view/Alternative_Pathways_to_High_School_Graduation%20Study%202008.pdf/242918415/Alternative_Pathways_to_High_School_Graduation%20Study%202008.pdf
Lavrijsen, J. (2012). Characteristics of educational systems. How they influence outcomes in the short and the long run.
https://lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/388832/3/SSL_2012+04_1+1+1_Characteristics+of+educational+systems.pdf
Lavrijsen, J., & Nicaise, I. (2013). Parental background and early school leaving. Steunpunt SSL, Leuven.
http://steunpuntssl.be/Publicaties/Publicaties_docs/ssl-2013.06-1-1-1-parentalbackground-and-early-school-leaving
Lamote, C., Speybroeck, S., Van Den Noortgate, W., & Van Damme, J. (2013). Different pathways towards dropout: the role of engagement in early school leaving. Oxford Review of Education, 39(6), 739-760.
Loiodice I. (a cura di) (2015). L’Università incontra l’infanzia. Teorie e pratiche per il benessere dei bambini e delle bambine nei luoghi della cura. Edizioni Junior, Parma.
Luciak, M., European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC) (2004). Migrants, minorities and education - Documenting discrimination and integration in 15 member states of the European Union. Office for Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
http://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/fra_uploads/186-CS-Education-en.pdf
Mantovani, S. (2009). Educazione familiare e servizi per l’infanzia. Rivista italiana di Educazione familiare, 1(2), 71-80.
MIUR (2014). Un calo di motivazione intrinseca nelle scuole secondarie? L’integrazione scolastica e sociale, 285.
Moretti, G. (2014). Gli strumenti organizzativi dell’autonomia: il punto di vista degli insegnanti sui documenti. Italian Journal of Educational Research, 112-129.
Moscati, R., Nigris, E. & Tramma, S. (a cura di) (2008). Dentro e fuori la scuola, Bruno Mondadori, Milano.
Müller, W., & Gangl, M. (2003). Transitions from education to work in Europe: the integration of youth into EU labour markets. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Mullis, I.V.S., Martin, M.O., Foy, P., & Drucker, K.T. (2012). PIRLS 2011 International Results in Reading. Progress in international reading literacy study (PIRLS). Chestnut Hill, MA (USA): International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College and IEA (NL).
http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/pirls2011/downloads/P11_IR_FullBook.pdf
Murineddu, M., Duca, V., & Cornoldi, C. (2006). Difficoltà di apprendimento scolastico degli studenti stranieri. Difficoltà di apprendimento, 12(1).
Nevala, A.M. et al. (2011). Reducing early leaving from education and training in the EU. European Parliament, Brussels.
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/activities/committees/studies/download.do?language=en&file=42311
OECD (2012). Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools. OECD, Paris.
OECD (2013). Programme for the international assessment of adult competences – dataset. http://www.oecd.org/site/piaac/
OECD (2014a). PISA 2012 Results. What Students Know and Can Do: Student Performance in Mathematics, Reading and Science, summarises the performance of students in PISA 2012.
http://www.oecd.org/pisa/keyfindings/pisa-2012-results-overview.pdf
OECD (2014b). TALIS 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning TALIS,
http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/education/talis-2013-results_9789264196261-en#.WA6CskvtLrg#page2
Psacharopoulos, G. (2007). The Costs of School Failure. A Feasibility Study. Analytical Report prepared for the European Commission. http://www.eee.de/portal/page/portal/EENEEContent/_IMPORTTELECENTRUM/DOCS/EENEE_AR2.pdf.
Piasere, L., Saletti Salza, C., & Tauber, E. (2003). L’educazione dei bambini sinti e rom: risultati preliminari di una ricerca europea. Antropologia dell’Occidente, 103-34.
Portera, A. (2006). Globalizzazione e pedagogia interculturale: interventi nella scuola. Edizioni Erickson.
Rivoltella, P. C, (2013). Fare didattica con gli EAS. Episodi di Apprendimento Situato. La Scuola, Brescia.
ROA, Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (2013). Early school leavers. Maastricht University.
http://www.roa.unimaas.nl/pdf_publications/2013/ROA_F_2013_3E.pdf
Ross, A., & Leathwood, C. (2013). Problematising early school leaving. European Journal of education, 48(3), 405-418.
Rumberger, R., & Lim, S. A. (2008). Why Students Drop Out of School: A Review of 25 Years of Research.
Santerini, M. (2010). La qualità della scuola interculturale. Nuovi modelli per l’integrazione. Erickson, Trento.
Scheerens, J., Glas, C. A., Thomas, S. M., & Thomas, S. (2003). Educational evaluation, assessment, and monitoring: a systemic approach (Vol. 13). Taylor & Francis.
Shavit, Y., & Muller, W. (2000). Vocational Secondary Education. European Societies, 2, 29-50.
Silberglitt, B. et al. (2006). Examining the effects of grade retention on student reading performance: A longitudinal study. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 255-270.
Snow, D. R. (2005). Classroom Strategies for Helping At-Risk Students. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA.
Thompson, C., & Cunningham, E. (2000). Retention and social promotion: Research and implications for policy. ERIC Digest, 161.
http://www.slocounty.ca.gov/Assets/CSN/PDF/Flyer+-+Why+students+drop+out.pdf
Traag, T., van der Velden, R.K.W. (2011). Early school-leaving in the Netherlands: the role of family resources, school composition and background characteristics in early school-leaving in lower secondary education. Irish Educational Studies, 30 (1), 45-62.
Trinchero, R. (2014). Il Servizio Nazionale di Valutazione e le prove Invalsi. Stato dell’arte e proposte per una valutazione come agente di cambiamento. Form@re, 14(4), 34.
Tumino, A., & Taylor, M.P., 2013. The impact of local labour market conditions on school leavingdecisions. Institute for Social and Economic Research.
http://www.iza.org/conference_files/FutureOfLabor_2013/tumino_a8618.pdf
Viganò, R. (2009). La valutazione dei sistemi formativi. Questioni e metodologie. Paradoxa. Luglio, 81-88.
Viganò, R., Brex, G., & Goisis, C. (Eds.) (2011). Per il gusto di apprendere. La didattica come risorsa contro il disagio. FrancoAngeli, Milano.
Zollo, I., Pace, E. M., Agrillo, F., & Sibilio, M. (2016). Il ruolo dell’orientamento per la promozione dell’inclusione educativa e sociale. Lifelong Lifewide Learning, 12(27), 14-28.